Tenofovir Disoproxil

BreastfeedingPediatric

Atripla is tenofovir disoproxil, efavirenz and emtricitabine; Complera is tenofovir disoproxil, emtricitabine and rilpivirine; Truvada is tenofovir disoproxil and emtricitabine.

See also separate profile for tenofovir disoproxil in combination with cobicistat, elvitegravir and emtricitabine.

LACTIC ACIDOSIS/SEVERE HEPATOMEGALY WITH STEATOSIS and POST TREATMENT EXACERBATION OF HEPATITIS

See full prescribing information for complete boxed warning.

Diaphoresis 3%

(package insert)

DRESS syndrome 

(2019): Aqtash O+, Int J Gen Med 12, 381 (1 case)

(2014): Almudimeegh A+, Br J Dermatol 171(4), 895 (with adiazine, levetiracetam, pyrimethamine and HAART)

Lichenoid eruption 

(2015): Gupta M+, Avicenna J Med 5(3), 95

(2004): Woolley IJ+, AIDS 18(13), 1857

Lipodystrophy 1%

(package insert)

Lupus erythematosus 

(2017): Mantis J+, Cureus 9(9), e1661 (with emtricitabine and rilpivirine)

Photoallergic reaction 

(2012): Verma R+, Indian J Pharmacol 44(5), 651

Rash 5–18%

(2015): Walmsley S+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 70(5), 5158% (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2014): Behrens G+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 28(4), 1682–11% (with emtricitabine and efavirenz or rilpivirine)

(2014): Clumeck N+, AIDS 28(8), 11433% (with emtricitabine)

(2008): Borras-Blasco J+, J Antimicrob Chemother 62(5), 879

Raynaud's phenomenon 

(2019): Aqtash O+, Int J Gen Med 12, 381 (1 case)

Stevens-Johnson syndrome 

(2015): Kakande B+, F1000Res 4, 175

(2015): Paik S+, Drug Saf Case Rep 2(1), 15 (with efavirenz and lamivudine)

Urticaria 

(2014): Ferrajolo C+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13 Suppl 1, 9Pediatric (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

Chest pain 3%

(package insert)

Abnormal dreams 

(2015): Walmsley S+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 70(5), 51516% (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2014): Behrens G+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 28(4), 1688–14% (with emtricitabine and efavirenz or rilpivirine)

(2013): Walmsley SL+, N Engl J Med 369(19), 1807 (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

Aggression 

(2016): Obebi Cliff-Eribo K+, Paediatr Int Child Health Jan, Epub [REVIEW] (1 case) (with efavirenz)

Anorexia 3%

(package insert)

Anxiety 6%

(2014): Behrens G+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 28(4), 168<3% (with emtricitabine and efavirenz or rilpivirine)

(2013): Walmsley SL+, N Engl J Med 369(19), 1807 (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

Depression 4–11%

(2014): Behrens G+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 28(4), 1683–5% (with emtricitabine and efavirenz or rilpivirine)

Fever (pyrexia) 2–8%

(package insert)

Headache 5–14%

(2017): McAllister JW+, AIDS 31(9), 129110% (with dolutegravir and emtricitabine)

(2017): Orrell C+, Lancet HIV 4(12), e53613% (with atazanavir, emtricitabine and ritonavir)

(2016): Buti M+, Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 1(3), 19610%

(2016): Chan HL+, Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 1(3), 1858%

(2016): Petersen J+, Dig Dis Sci 61(10), 30612%

(2015): Walmsley S+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 70(5), 5157% (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2014): Markowitz M+, J Antimicrob Chemother 69(5), 136250%

(2014): Ridruejo E, World J Gastroenterol 20(23), 7169 [REVIEW]

(2012): Mayer KH+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59(4), 35415% (with emtricitabine and raltegravir)

(2002): Fung HB+, Clin Ther 24(10), 1515 [REVIEW]

Impaired concentration 

(2014): Behrens G+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 28(4), 168<2% (with emtricitabine and efavirenz or rilpivirine)

Insomnia 3–5%

(2015): Walmsley S+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 70(5), 5156% (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2014): Markowitz M+, J Antimicrob Chemother 69(5), 136210%

Neurotoxicity 3%

(2014): Behrens G+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 28(4), 16816–38% (with emtricitabine and efavirenz or rilpivirine)

(2014): Ferrajolo C+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13 Suppl 1, 9Pediatric (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2014): Ibarra-Barrueta O+, Ann Pharmacother 48(1), 145 (with efavirenz, emtricitabine and montelukast)

(2013): Rockstroh JK+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 63(1), 7739–64% (with emtricitabine and raltegravir or efavirenz)

(2011): Cohen C+, AIDS 25(6), F7 (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2004): Prescrire Int 13(73), 1803%

Nightmares 

(2014): Behrens G+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 28(4), 1688–14% (with emtricitabine and efavirenz or rilpivirine)

Pain 7–13%

(package insert)

Peripheral neuropathy <3%

(package insert)

Sleep related disorder 

(2014): Behrens G+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 28(4), 168<4% (with emtricitabine and efavirenz or rilpivirine)

Somnolence (drowsiness) 

(2014): Behrens G+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 28(4), 1683–6% (with emtricitabine and efavirenz or rilpivirine)

(2013): Walmsley SL+, N Engl J Med 369(19), 1807 (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

Vertigo (dizziness) <3%

(2015): Kebaabetswe PM+, AIDS Behav 19(5), 758 (with emtricitabine)

(2015): Walmsley S+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 70(5), 51533% (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2014): Behrens G+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 28(4), 16810–28% (with emtricitabine and efavirenz or rilpivirine)

(2013): Walmsley SL+, N Engl J Med 369(19), 1807 (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

Acidosis 

(2015): Hashim H+, Iran Red Crescent Med J 17(10), Epub (fatal / 1 case)Fatal

(2011): Kazazis C, J Ren Care 37(3), 174 (with metformin)

(2004): Hansen AB+, Scand J Infect Dis 36(5), 389

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased 

(2017): McAllister JW+, AIDS 31(9), 129122% (with dolutegravir and emtricitabine)

(2016): Chan HL+, Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 1(3), 18513% (grade 3 or 4)

(2016): Kovari H+, Open Forum Infect Dis 3(1), Epub

Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) increased 

(2016): Chan HL+, Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 1(3), 1857% (grade 3 or 4)

Creatine phosphokinase increased 

(2017): Chen JZ+, Sci Rep 7(1), 4132 (in pregnancy)

(2014): McAllister J+, HIV Med 15(1), 13 (with emtricitabine and raltegravir)

(2014): Santini-Oliveira M+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(12), 1623 [REVIEW]

Cushing's syndrome 

(2013): Eeftinck Schattenkerk JK+, Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd (Dutch) 157(14), a5509 (salmeterol/fluticasone or triamcinolonacetonide with atazanavir, emtricitabine, ritonavir and tenofovir)

Hypokalemia 

(2014): Santini-Oliveira M+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(12), 1623 [REVIEW]

(2006): Cirino CM+, AIDS 20(12), 1671

Hypophosphatemia 

(2015): Koklu S+, Aliment Pharmacol Ther 41(3), 310 (7 cases) (transient)

(2014): Santini-Oliveira M+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(12), 1623 [REVIEW]

(2012): Pontrelli G+, BMC Infect Dis 12, 18 (4 cases)Pediatric (with ritonavir)

Weight loss 2%

(package insert)

Abdominal pain 4–7%

(2012): Mayer KH+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59(4), 35416% (with emtricitabine and raltegravir)

(2002): Fung HB+, Clin Ther 24(10), 1515 [REVIEW]

Diarrhea 11%

(2017): McAllister JW+, AIDS 31(9), 129121% (with dolutegravir and emtricitabine)

(2017): Tetteh RA+, Drug Saf 40(4), 273 [REVIEW] (with emtricitabine)

(2015): Gupta M+, Avicenna J Med 5(3), 95 (passim)

(2015): Walmsley S+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 70(5), 5158% (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2014): Clumeck N+, AIDS 28(8), 11438% (with emtricitabine)

(2013): Sokal DC+, Antivir Ther 18(3), 30117%

(2012): Mayer KH+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59(4), 35421% (with emtricitabine and raltegravir)

Dyspepsia 3–4%

(package insert)

Flatulence 3%

(2014): Markowitz M+, J Antimicrob Chemother 69(5), 136223%

Hepatic failure 

(2013): Fink DL+, Int J STD AIDS 24(10), 831 (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2012): Qayyum S+, Curr Drug Saf 7(5), 391 (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

Hepatitis 

(2015): Habib G+, Dig Liver Dis 47(10), 898

Hepatotoxicity 

(2016): Kovari H+, Open Forum Infect Dis 3(1), Epub

(2015): Gupta M+, Avicenna J Med 5(3), 95 (passim)

(2013): Echenique IA+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 27(9), 493 [REVIEW] (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

Nausea 8%

(2017): McAllister JW+, AIDS 31(9), 129125% (with dolutegravir and emtricitabine)

(2017): Orrell C+, Lancet HIV 4(12), e53620% (with atazanavir, emtricitabine and ritonavir)

(2017): Tetteh RA+, Drug Saf 40(4), 273 [REVIEW] (with emtricitabine)

(2015): Gupta M+, Avicenna J Med 5(3), 95 (passim)

(2015): Kebaabetswe PM+, AIDS Behav 19(5), 758 (with emtricitabine)

(2015): Walmsley S+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 70(5), 51512% (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2014): Clumeck N+, AIDS 28(8), 11438% (with emtricitabine)

(2014): Markowitz M+, J Antimicrob Chemother 69(5), 136227%

(2014): Ridruejo E, World J Gastroenterol 20(23), 7169 [REVIEW]

(2012): Mayer KH+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59(4), 35427% (with emtricitabine and raltegravir)

Pancreatitis 

(2004): Kirian MA+, Ann Pharmacother 38(10), 1660 (with didanosine)

(2004): Martinez E+, Lancet 364(9428), 65 (with didanosine)

(2003): AIDS Patient Care STDS 17(6), 309 (with didanosine)

(2003): Blanchard JN+, Clin Infect Dis 37(5), e57 (with didanosine)

(2003): Callens S+, J Infect 47(2), 188 (with didanosine and stavudine)

Vomiting  4–5%

(2020): Deng H+, Antivir Ther Feb, Epub ahead of print

(2017): Tetteh RA+, Drug Saf 40(4), 273 [REVIEW] (with emtricitabine)

(2015): Gupta M+, Avicenna J Med 5(3), 95 (passim)

(2015): Kebaabetswe PM+, AIDS Behav 19(5), 758 (with emtricitabine)

(2014): Clumeck N+, AIDS 28(8), 11437% (with emtricitabine)

(2012): Mayer KH+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59(4), 35427% (with emtricitabine and raltegravir)

Glycosuria  

(2014): Santini-Oliveira M+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(12), 1623 [REVIEW]

Anemia 

(2014): Landman R+, Antivir Ther 19(1), 51 (2 cases) (with emtricitabine and zidovudine)

Arthralgia 5%

(2012): Mayer KH+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59(4), 3548% (with emtricitabine and raltegravir)

Asthenia (fatigue) 6–7%

(2017): McAllister JW+, AIDS 31(9), 129126% (with dolutegravir and emtricitabine)

(2016): Petersen J+, Dig Dis Sci 61(10), 30612%

(2015): Walmsley S+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 70(5), 5157% (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2014): Ridruejo E, World J Gastroenterol 20(23), 7169 [REVIEW]

(2012): Mayer KH+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59(4), 35414% (with emtricitabine and raltegravir)

(2002): Fung HB+, Clin Ther 24(10), 1515 [REVIEW]

Back pain 3–9%

(2014): Ridruejo E, World J Gastroenterol 20(23), 7169 [REVIEW]

Bone loss 

(2015): Esposito I+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 14(9), 1421 [REVIEW]

Bone or joint pain 

(2014): Mangioni D+, BMC Infect Dis 14, 131

(2010): Jhaveri MA+, J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic) 9(5), 328 (severe)

(2009): Perrot S+, J Clin Rheumatol 15(2), 72

(2009): Wanner DP+, Clin Exp Rheumatol 27(6), 1001

Fractures 

(2009): Perrot S+, J Clin Rheumatol 15(2), 72

(2009): Wanner DP+, Clin Exp Rheumatol 27 (6), 1001 (multiple)

Myalgia/Myositis/Myopathy/Myotoxicity 3%

(2014): McAllister J+, HIV Med 15(1), 139% (with emtricitabine and raltegravir)

(2012): Mayer KH+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 59(4), 3548% (with emtricitabine and raltegravir)

Osteomalacia 

(2014): Santini-Oliveira M+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(12), 1623 [REVIEW]

(2013): Lucey JM+, BMJ Case Rep Jul, Epub (with emtricitabine, lopinavir and ritonavir)

(2009): Perrot S+, J Clin Rheumatol 15(2), 72

(2009): Wanner DP+, Clin Exp Rheumatol 27 (6), 1001

(2006): Torres Isidro MV+, Rev Esp Med Nucl 25(2), 103

Rhabdomyolysis 

(2003): Callens S+, J Infect 47(3), 262

Synovial effusions 

(2009): Wanner DP+, Clin Exp Rheumatol 27 (6), 1001

Icteric sclera  

(2019): Aqtash O+, Int J Gen Med 12, 381 (1 case)

Fanconi syndrome 

(2017): Ahn HJ+, PLoS One 12(1), Epub (2 cases)

(2017): Bhogal S, Am J Ther 24(5), e617

(2017): Karris MY, AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 33(7), 718

(2017): Suh YS+, Medicine (Baltimore) 96(46), e8760

(2016): Balak DM+, Clin Kidney J 9(1), 82 (passim)

(2016): Lopez Centeno B+, Farm Hosp 40(4), 279 (1 case)

(2016): Penot P+, AIDS 30(8), 1311

(2016): Ray AS+, Antiviral Res 125, 63

(2014): Vigano M+, J Clin Virol 61(4), 600

(2013): Kapadia J+, Indian J Pharmacol 45(2), 191 (with ritonavir)

(2013): Lucey JM+, BMJ Case Rep Jul, Epub (with emtricitabine, lopinavir and ritonavir)

(2012): Gracey DM+, Med J Aust 196, 111

(2012): Kiyasu Y+, J Infect Chemother 18(2), 255

(2011): Hall AM+, Am J Kidney Dis 57(5), 773 [REVIEW]

(2011): Haverkort ME+, Scand J Infect Dis 43(10), 821

(2011): Kuijper A+, Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 155, A2249 (with HAART / ritonavir)

(2010): Vilchez-Aparicio V+, Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin 28(9), 653

(2009): Irizarry-Alvarado JM+, AIDS Read 19(3), 114 (with didanosine)

(2009): Perrot S+, J Clin Rheumatol 15(2), 72

(2008): Gupta SK, AIDS Patient Care STDS 22(2), 99 [REVIEW]

(2006): de la Prada FJ+, Nefrologia 26(5), 626

(2006): Izzedine H+, J Infect Dis 194(11), 1481

(2006): Mathew G+, J Gen Intern Med 21(11), C3

(2005): Quimby D+, AIDS Read 15(7), 357 [REVIEW]

(2004): Rifkin BS+, Am J Med 117(4), 282

(2002): Verhelst D+, Am J Kidney Dis 40(6), 1331

Nephrolithiasis 

(2014): Post F, J Int AIDS Soc 17(4 Suppl 3), Epub

Nephrotoxicity 

(2018): LaFleur J+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 77(3), 325

(2017): Post FA+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 74(2), 180 (passim)

(2016): Bunnell KL+, Pharmacotherapy 36(9), e148 (with ledipasvir & sofosbuvir)

(2016): Cho H+, Clin Mol Hepatol 22(2), 286

(2016): Koh HM+, Med J Malaysia 71(6), 308

(2016): Mak LY+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 15(3), 383 [REVIEW]3%

(2016): Mikula JM+, Antivir Ther 21(6), 553

(2016): Mouton JP+, Medicine (Baltimore) 95(19), e3437

(2016): Njuguna C+, Drug Saf 39(2), 159 [REVIEW]

(2016): Ray AS+, Antiviral Res 125, 63

(2015): Esposito I+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 14(9), 1421 [REVIEW]

(2015): Gupta M+, Avicenna J Med 5(3), 95 (passim)

(2015): Petersen J+, Dig Dis Sci 61(10), 30611%

(2014): Fabbiani M+, Scand J Infect Dis 46(1), 34 (1 case) (with emtricitabine and raltegravir)

(2014): Post F, J Int AIDS Soc 17(4 Suppl 3), Epub

(2013): Tourret J+, J Am Soc Nephrol 24(10), 1519

(2013): Woratanarat K+, J Med Assoc Thai 96(4), 432

(2012): Calza L, HIV Clin Trials 13(4), 189

(2012): Gara N+, Aliment Pharmacol Ther 35(11), 131714%

(2012): Scherzer R+, AIDS 26(7), 867

(2011): Brennan A+, AIDS 25(13), 16032%

(2011): Hall AM+, Am J Kidney Dis 57(5), 773 [REVIEW]

(2011): Schleenvoigt BT+, Eur J Med Res 16(12), 564

(2010): Jao J+, Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 17(1), 72

(2007): Gitman MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 6(2), 155

(2007): Gupta Samir K, AIDS Read 17(2), 102

(2007): Rho M+, Curr Drug Saf 2(2), 147

(2007): Sax PE+, AIDS Read 17(2), 90

(2006): Gatanaga H+, AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 22(8), 744

(2006): Izzedine H+, J Infect Dis 194(11), 1481

(2006): Lanzafame M+, Clin Infect Dis 42(11), 1656

(2006): Scott JD+, HIV Clin Trials 7(2), 55

(2006): Valle R+, Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 13(3), 314

(2005): Antoniou T+, HIV Med 6(4), 2844%

(2005): Fine DM, AIDS Read 15(7), 362

(2005): Izzedine H+, Am J Kidney Dis 45(5), 804

(2005): Padilla S+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 19(7), 421<2%

(2004): Barrios A+, AIDS 18(6), 960

(2004): James CW+, Pharmacotherapy 24(3), 415 [REVIEW]

(2004): Rifkin BS+, Am J Med 117(4), 282

(2003): Perazella MA, Am J Med Sci 325(6), 349

(2002): Coca S+, Am J Med Sci 324(6), 342

Proteinuria 

(2015): Chadwick DR+, BMC Nephrol 16(1), 195

(2014): Santini-Oliveira M+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(12), 1623 [REVIEW]

(2013): Kelly MD+, AIDS 27(3), 47927%

(2012): Scherzer R+, AIDS 26(7), 867

Renal failure 

(2014): Krishna MM+, Indian J Pharmacol 46(2), 230 (delayed / with emtricitabine, lopinavir and ritonavir)

(2011): Manosuthi W+, Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health 42(3), 643

(2011): Pavie J+, AIDS Patient Care STDS 25(8), 457

(2006): de la Prada FJ+, Nefrologia 26(5), 626

(2006): Zimmermann AE+, Clin Infect Dis 42(2), 283

(2004): Hansen AB+, Scand J Infect Dis 36(5), 389

(2004): Rifkin BS+, Am J Med 117(4), 282

(2003): Perazella MA, Am J Med Sci 325(6), 349

(2002): Coca S+, Am J Med Sci 324(6), 342

(2002): Verhelst D+, Am J Kidney Dis 40(6), 1331

Renal tubular acidosis 

(2020): Salimi R+, Int J STD AIDS Jan, Epub ahead of print (1 case)

(2016): Iwata K+, BMC Pharmacol Toxicol 17(1), 52 (1 case)

Renal tubular necrosis 

(2012): Stravitz RT+, Liver Int 32(7), 1138 (1 case) (with emtricitabine)

(2006): Zimmermann AE+, Clin Infect Dis 42(2), 283

Nasopharyngitis 

(2016): Buti M+, Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 1(3), 19611%

(2016): Chan HL+, Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 1(3), 1855%

(2014): Ridruejo E, World J Gastroenterol 20(23), 7169 [REVIEW]

Pneumonia 2–5%

(package insert)

Upper respiratory tract infection 

(2016): Buti M+, Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 1(3), 1967%

(2016): Chan HL+, Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 1(3), 1858%

Adverse effects 

(2017): Chen JZ+, Sci Rep 7(1), 4132 (in pregnancy)

(2016): Awodele O+, Int J Risk Saf Med 28(1), 1324% (with efavirenz and lamivudine)

(2016): Gallant JE+, Lancet HIV 3(4), e1581% (with emtricitabine)

(2016): Wang H+, Medicine (Baltimore) 95(41), e5146 [REVIEW]

(2015): Thuppal SV+, Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 109(6), 37911% (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2014): Prescrire Int 23(149), 124Pediatric

(2013): Marcellin P+, Lancet 381(9865), 46816%

(2013): Martinez E+, AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 29(2), 2353% (with emtricitabine)

(2013): Rockstroh JK+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 63(1), 7752–80% (with emtricitabine and raltegravir or efavirenz)

(2013): Zolopa A+, J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 63(1), 967% (with efavirenz and emtricitabine)

(2012): Eluwa GI+, BMC Clin Pharmacol 12, 73%

Death 

(2015): Hashim H+, Iran Red crescent Med J Nov, Epub (1 case)



Visit Informa

Click on the DRUG REVIEW ARTICLE tab (above) to see a review of tenofovir in the Taylor & Francis journal Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. (Note that non-subscribers to the journal will only be able to see an abstract of the article.)

Adverse reactions attributed to entire drug class Antiretroviral

Hematological adverse effect 

(2019): Oumar AA+, Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 8(5), 83115%

Optic neuropathy 

(2013): Wang MY+, J Neuroophthalmol 33(2), 172 [REVIEW]

Adverse effects 

(2019): Oumar AA+, Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 8(5), 83142%

(2014): Lorio M+, J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care 13(5), 4666%

Adverse reactions attributed to entire drug class COVID-19 putative drug

Cutaneous adverse reaction  

(2020): Tursen U+, Dermatol Ther May, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

Cardiovascular adverse effect 

(2020): Naksuk N+, Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care May, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2020): Sarayani A+, Res Social Adm Pharm Apr, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

Gastrointestinal disorder 

(2020): Sun J+, Clin Pharmacol Ther Apr, Epub ahead of print23%

Hepatic disorder 

(2020): Sun J+, Clin Pharmacol Ther Apr, Epub ahead of print14%

Thrombocytopenia 

(2020): Nham E+, Infect Chemother Apr, Epub ahead of print

Adverse effects 

(2020): Patil VM+, Life Sci May, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2020): Sun J+, Clin Pharmacol Ther Apr, Epub ahead of print38%

(2020): Svensson M, Lakartidningen (Swedish) Apr, 117

(2020): Wen CY+, Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi (Chinese) May, Epub ahead of print

(2020): Zhong H+, Pharmacol Res Apr, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

Adverse reactions attributed to entire drug class Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor

Lipodystrophy 

(2011): Reust CE, Am Fam Physician 83(12), 1443

Acidosis 

(2011): Reust CE, Am Fam Physician 83(12), 1443

Hyperlipidemia  

(2011): Reust CE, Am Fam Physician 83(12), 1443

Hepatotoxicity 

(2015): Rabinowich L+, Biomed Res Int Jul, Epub [REVIEW]

Pancreatitis 

(2001): Tantisiriwat W+, AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 17 (3), 195

Page last updated 05/07/2020

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Incidence info

  • <1%
  • 1-5%
  • 5-10%
  • 10-15%
  • 15-20%
  • 20-30%
  • >30%

Seriousness info

  • Hospitalization possible
  • Life threatening
  • Fatal

Warnings in other populations info

  • Breast feeding
  • Geriatric
  • Pediatric
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