Fingolimod

BreastfeedingPediatric
CLINICALLY IMPORTANT, POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS INTERACTIONS WITH:

BCG Vaccine, Beta blockers, Class Ia antiarrhythmics, Class III antiarrhythmics, Conivaptan, Cyproterone, Denosumab, Digoxin, Diltiazem, Dronedarone, Ketoconazole, Leflunomide, Live vaccines, Natalizumab, PEG-Interferon, Pimecrolimus, QT prolonging drugs, Roflumilast, Sipuleucel-T, Tacrolimus, Tocilizumab, Trastuzumab, Typhoid Vaccine, Verapamil, Yellow Fever Vaccine

PREGNANCY CATEGORY: C

Under investigation for treating COVID-19

See adverse reactions attributed to class:

Covid-19 putative drug

Immunosuppressant

Contra-indicated in patients with recent (within the last 6 months) occurrence of: myocardial infarction, unstable angina, stroke, transient ischemic attack, decompensated heart failure requiring hospitalization, or Class III/IV heart failure; history or presence of Mobitz Type II 2nd degree or 3rd degree AV block or sick sinus syndrome, unless patient has a pacemaker; baseline QT interval ≥500 ms; or is receiving treatment with Class Ia or Class III anti-arrhythmic drugs.

Basal cell carcinoma 

(2017): Auricchio F+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 16(12), 1359 [REVIEW]

(2014): Calabresi PA+, Lancet Neurol 13(6), 5453%

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

Eczema 3%

(package insert)

Herpes 9%

(2012): Winkelmann A+, Nervenarzt 83(2), 236 (fatal)Fatal

(2012): Yadav V+, Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 12(5), 489

(2011): Gasperini C+, Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 16(4), 697 [REVIEW]

(2010): Cohen JA+, N Engl J Med 362(5), 402

(2010): Horga A+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11(7), 1183

(2010): Pozzilli C+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11(11), 1957 (fatal)Fatal

Herpes simplex 

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

(2011): Yeh EA+, Adv Ther 28(4), 270

(2010): Cohen JA+, N Engl J Med 362(5), 402

Herpes zoster 

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

(2014): Calabresi PA+, Lancet Neurol 13(6), 5453%

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

Kaposi's sarcoma 

(2016): Walker S+, J Clin Neurosci 31, 217

(2015): Tully T+, Neurology 84(19), 1999

Lymphoma 

(2016): Papathemeli D+, Mult Scler 22(14), 1888

(2011): Prescrire Int 20(118), 173

Lymphoproliferative disease 

(2017): Baharnoori M+, Am J Ther Oct, Epub ahead of print

Melanoma 

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

Pruritus (itching) 3%

(2015): Russo M+, Mayo Clin Proc 90(10), 1424 (palmar)

Skin cancer 

(2010): Cohen JA+, N Engl J Med 362(5), 402

(2010): Comi G+, Mult Scler 16 (2), 197

(2010): Pozzilli C+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11 (11), 1957

Tinea 4%

(package insert)

Tumors 

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

Varicella zoster 

(2012): Ratchford JN+, Neurology 79(19), 2002

(2012): Winkelmann A+, Nervenarzt 83(2), 236

(2011): Uccelli A+, Neurology 76(11), 1023

(2011): Yeh EA+, Adv Ther 28(4), 270

(2010): Cohen JA+, N Engl J Med 362(5), 402

Alopecia / hair loss 4%

(package insert)

Nasal congestion 

(2016): Bianco A+, Mult Scler Relat Disord 9, 11 (passim)

Oropharyngeal pain 

(2016): Bianco A+, Mult Scler Relat Disord 9, 11 (passim)

Arrhythmias 

(2014): Laroni A+, BMC Neurol 14, 65

Asystole 

(2012): Yadav V+, Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 12(5), 489

(2011): Espinosa PS+, Mult Scler 17(11), 1387

Atrial fibrillation 

(2015): Paolicelli D+, J Clin Pharmacol 55(10), 1131 (1 case)

(2014): Rolf L+, Neurology 82(11), 1008

Atrioventricular block 

(2020): Yang CC+, J Formos Med Assoc Jul, Online ahead of print (1 case) (after first dose)

(2017): Voldsgaard A+, Acta Neurol Scand 135(1), 1294%

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

(2015): Paolicelli D+, J Clin Pharmacol 55(10), 1131 (1 case)

(2014): Calabresi PA+, Lancet Neurol 13(6), 5455%

(2014): DiMarco JP+, Mult Scler Relat Disord 3(5), 629<1%

(2014): Hojer J+, Clin Toxicol (Phila) 52(6), 644Pediatric

(2014): Laroni A+, BMC Neurol 14, 65<1%

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2014): Sanford M, Drugs 74(12), 1411 [REVIEW]

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

(2013): Livio F, Rev Med Suisse (French) 9(368), 72 [REVIEW] (after first dose)

(2012): Fazekas F, Wien Med Wochenschr 162(15-16), 354

(2012): Saida T+, Mult Scler 18(9), 1269

(2011): Gasperini C+, Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 16(4), 697 [REVIEW]

(2011): Singer B+, Int J Clin Pract 65(8), 887

(2010): Barten LJ+, Drug Des Devel Ther 4, 343

(2010): Cohen JA+, N Engl J Med 362(5), 402

(2010): Horga A+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11(7), 1183

(2010): Kappos L+, N Engl J Med 362 (5), 387

Bradyarrhythmia 

(2010): Pozzilli C+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11 (11), 1957

Bradycardia / sinus bradycardia 4%

(2020): Yang CC+, J Formos Med Assoc Jul, Online ahead of print22% (first-dose related)

(2017): Achiron A+, BMC Neurol 17(1), 150 (3 cases)

(2017): Voldsgaard A+, Acta Neurol Scand 135(1), 1294%

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

(2015): Russo M+, Mayo Clin Proc 90(10), 1424 (passim)

(2014): Calabresi PA+, Lancet Neurol 13(6), 5451%

(2014): DiMarco JP+, Mult Scler Relat Disord 3(5), 629<2%

(2014): Gold R+, J Neurol 261(2), 2671%

(2014): Harrison K, Br J Nurs 23(11), 582 [REVIEW]

(2014): Laroni A+, BMC Neurol 14, 651%

(2014): Sanford M, Drugs 74(12), 1411 [REVIEW]

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

(2013): Faber H+, Mult Scler 19(1), 126

(2013): Livio F, Rev Med Suisse (French) 9(368), 72 [REVIEW] (after first dose)

(2012): Fazekas F, Wien Med Wochenschr 162(15-16), 354

(2012): Ontaneda D+, J Neurol Sci 323(1-2), 167

(2012): Saida T+, Mult Scler 18(9), 1269

(2011): Espinosa PS+, Mult Scler 17(11), 1387

(2011): Gasperini C+, Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 16(4), 697 [REVIEW]

(2011): Hyland MH+, Neurol Clin Pract 1(1), 61

(2011): Singer B+, Int J Clin Pract 65(8), 887

(2010): Barten LJ+, Drug Des Devel Ther 4, 343

(2010): Cohen JA+, N Engl J Med 362(5), 402

(2010): Horga A+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11(7), 1183

(2010): Kappos L+, N Engl J Med 362 (5), 387

Cardiac disorder 

(2011): Prescrire Int 20(118), 173

Cardiac failure 

(2012): Prescrire Int 21(126)

(2011): Prescrire Int 20(118), 173

Cardiotoxicity 

(2017): Guarnera C+, Drug Des Devel Ther 11, 2193 [REVIEW]

(2015): Thomas RH+, Am J Health Syst Pharm 72(1), 25 [REVIEW]

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]<10%

Hypertension 6%

(2015): Paolicelli D+, J Clin Pharmacol 55(10), 1131 (5 cases)

(2014): Calabresi PA+, Lancet Neurol 13(6), 5459%

(2014): Harrison K, Br J Nurs 23(11), 582 [REVIEW]

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW] (minor)

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

(2011): Gasperini C+, Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 16(4), 697 [REVIEW]

(2011): Hyland MH+, Neurol Clin Pract 1(1), 61

(2010): Cohen JA+, N Engl J Med 362(5), 402

(2010): Horga A+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11(7), 1183

(2010): Kappos L+, N Engl J Med 362 (5), 387

Palpitation 

(2014): Laroni A+, BMC Neurol 14, 65<1%

Aggression (includes anger) 

(2016): Bayas A+, Ther Adv Neurol Disord 9(5), 378

Depression 8%

(package insert)

Encephalopathy (includes hepatic encephalopathy) 

(2017): Fragoso YD, Acta Neurol Belg 117(4), 821 [REVIEW]

(2015): Linda H+, Front Neurol 6, 39

Headache 25%

(2017): Fragoso YD, Acta Neurol Belg 117(4), 821 [REVIEW]

(2017): Rojas JI+, Clin Neuropharmacol 40(6), 251

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]16%

(2015): Gajofatto A+, Drug Healthc Patient Saf 7, 157 [REVIEW]

(2015): Russo M+, Mayo Clin Proc 90(10), 1424 (passim)

(2014): Al-Hashel J+, CNS Drugs 28(9), 817

(2014): Fox E+, Mult Scler Relat Disord 3(5), 60712%

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

(2011): Hyland MH+, Neurol Clin Pract 1(1), 61

(2010): Comi G+, Mult Scler 16 (2), 19730%

Hypoesthesia (numbness) 

(2020): Yang CC+, J Formos Med Assoc Jul, Online ahead of print12%

Leukoencephalopathy / posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)) 

(2017): Auricchio F+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 16(12), 1359 [REVIEW]

(2017): Berger JR, Mult Scler Relat Disord 12, 59

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

(2016): Yoshii F+, Mult Scler Relat Disord 7, 53

(2015): Gajofatto A+, Drug Healthc Patient Saf 7, 157 [REVIEW]

(2014): Diezi L+, Rev Med Suisse (French) 10(412-413), 119 [REVIEW]

Migraine 5%

(package insert)

Neurotoxicity 

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

Paresthesias 5%

(package insert)

Seizures 

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]<1%

Stuttering (dysphemia) / stammering 

(2021): Ekhart C+, Front Psychiatry Aug, eCollection [REVIEW]

Vertigo / dizziness 7%

(2020): Yang CC+, J Formos Med Assoc Jul, Online ahead of print12%

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]11%

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased 14%

(2017): Manni A+, Brain Behav 7(10), Epub

(2014): Calabresi PA+, Lancet Neurol 13(6), 5458%

(2011): Gasperini C+, Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 16(4), 697 [REVIEW]

Amenorrhea 

(2014): Alroughani R, Mult Scler 20(12), 1662 (3 cases)

Thyroid dysfunction 

(2017): Fragoso YD, Acta Neurol Belg 117(4), 821 [REVIEW]

Weight loss 5%

(package insert)

Diarrhea 12%

(2015): Russo M+, Mayo Clin Proc 90(10), 1424 (passim)

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

(2011): Hyland MH+, Neurol Clin Pract 1(1), 61

Gastroenteritis 5%

(package insert)

Hepatotoxicity / liver injury / acute liver injury / drug-induced liver injury (DILI) 

(2017): Guarnera C+, Drug Des Devel Ther 11, 2193 [REVIEW]

(2017): Rojas JI+, Clin Neuropharmacol 40(6), 251

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

(2015): Russo M+, Mayo Clin Proc 90(10), 1424 (passim)

(2014): Harrison K, Br J Nurs 23(11), 582 [REVIEW]

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2011): Hyland MH+, Neurol Clin Pract 1(1), 61

(2010): Cohen JA+, N Engl J Med 362 (5), 402

(2010): Horga A+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11 (7), 1183

(2010): Kappos L+, N Engl J Med 362 (5), 387

(2010): Pozzilli C+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11 (11), 1957

Nausea 

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

Urinary tract infection 

(2020): Yang CC+, J Formos Med Assoc Jul, Online ahead of print7%

(2011): Gasperini C+, Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 16(4), 697 [REVIEW]

Leukocytopenia (leukopenia) 3%

(2021): Alroughani R+, Clin Neurol Neurosurg Feb, Online ahead of print2%

(2017): Auricchio F+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 16(12), 1359 [REVIEW]

Lymphopenia (lymphocytopenia) / lymphocytes decreased 4%

(2021): Alroughani R+, Clin Neurol Neurosurg Feb, Online ahead of print6%

(2018): Ohtani R+, Mult Scler J Exp Transl Clin 4(1), Epub [REVIEW]

(2017): Auricchio F+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 16(12), 1359 [REVIEW]

(2017): Guarnera C+, Drug Des Devel Ther 11, 2193 [REVIEW]

(2017): Rojas JI+, Clin Neuropharmacol 40(6), 251

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]18%

(2016): Bayas A+, Ther Adv Neurol Disord 9(5), 378

(2016): Obermann M+, Mult Scler 22(9), 1235 (passim)

(2014): Al-Hashel J+, CNS Drugs 28(9), 817

(2014): Calabresi PA+, Lancet Neurol 13(6), 5458%

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

(2012): Cervera C, Rev Neurol 55(4), 227

(2011): Hyland MH+, Neurol Clin Pract 1(1), 61

(2010): Barten LJ+, Drug Des Devel Ther 4, 343

(2010): Pozzilli C+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11 (11), 1957

Asthenia / fatigue 3%

(2017): Rojas JI+, Clin Neuropharmacol 40(6), 251

(2015): Gajofatto A+, Drug Healthc Patient Saf 7, 157 [REVIEW]

(2014): Fox E+, Mult Scler Relat Disord 3(5), 60712%

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

(2010): Comi G+, Mult Scler 16 (2), 19719%

Back pain 12%

(2020): Yang CC+, J Formos Med Assoc Jul, Online ahead of print7%

(2015): Gajofatto A+, Drug Healthc Patient Saf 7, 157 [REVIEW]

(2015): Russo M+, Mayo Clin Proc 90(10), 1424 (passim)

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

(2011): Hyland MH+, Neurol Clin Pract 1(1), 61

Macular edema <1%

(2017): Auricchio F+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 16(12), 1359 [REVIEW]

(2017): Jasani KM+, BMJ Case Rep Jun, Epub

(2017): Mandal P+, Eye (Lond) 31(2), 232 [REVIEW]

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

(2015): Gajofatto A+, Drug Healthc Patient Saf 7, 157 [REVIEW]

(2015): Thoo S+, Mult Scler 21(2), 249

(2014): Calabresi PA+, Lancet Neurol 13(6), 5451%

(2014): Harrison K, Br J Nurs 23(11), 582 [REVIEW]

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

(2013): Afshar AR+, JAMA Ophthalmol 131(1), 103

(2013): Chui J+, JAMA Ophthalmol 131(5), 694

(2013): Makri OE+, Drugs 73(8), 789 [REVIEW]

(2012): Jain N+, Neurology 78(9), 672

(2011): Prescrire Int 20(118), 173

(2011): Gasperini C+, Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 16(4), 697 [REVIEW]

(2011): Hyland MH+, Neurol Clin Pract 1(1), 61

(2011): Singer B+, Int J Clin Pract 65(8), 887

(2010): Barten LJ+, Drug Des Devel Ther 4, 343

(2010): Cohen JA+, N Engl J Med 362(5), 402

(2010): Horga A+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11(7), 1183

(2010): Kappos L+, N Engl J Med 362 (5), 387

(2010): Pozzilli C+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11 (11), 1957

Ocular adverse effect 

(2017): Fragoso YD, Acta Neurol Belg 117(4), 821 [REVIEW]

Ocular hemorrhage 

(2017): Mandal P+, Eye (Lond) 31(2), 232 [REVIEW]

Ocular pain 3%

(package insert)

Reduced visual acuity 

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

Retinal vein occlusion  

(2017): Mandal P+, Eye (Lond) 31(2), 232 [REVIEW]

Vision blurred 4%

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

Asthma 

(2014): Zecca C+, Patient Prefer Adherence 8, 987 (life threatening)Fatal

Bronchitis 8%

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

Cough 10%

(2016): Bianco A+, Mult Scler Relat Disord 9, 11 (passim)

(2015): Russo M+, Mayo Clin Proc 90(10), 1424 (passim)

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2011): Hyland MH+, Neurol Clin Pract 1(1), 61

Dyspnea / shortness of breath 8%

(2016): Bianco A+, Mult Scler Relat Disord 9, 11 (severe / 2 cases)

(2011): Hyland MH+, Neurol Clin Pract 1(1), 61

Flu-like syndrome 

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

Influenza 13%

(2015): Russo M+, Mayo Clin Proc 90(10), 1424 (passim)

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

(2011): Hyland MH+, Neurol Clin Pract 1(1), 61

(2010): Comi G+, Mult Scler 16 (2), 19718%

Nasopharyngitis 

(2017): Auricchio F+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 16(12), 1359 [REVIEW]

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

(2016): Bayas A+, Ther Adv Neurol Disord 9(5), 378

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

(2010): Comi G+, Mult Scler 16 (2), 19734%

Pharyngitis 

(2017): Yoshii F+, Clin Exp Neuroimmunol 8(3), 233 [REVIEW]

Pulmonary toxicity 

(2017): Fragoso YD, Acta Neurol Belg 117(4), 821 [REVIEW]

(2017): Voldsgaard A+, Acta Neurol Scand 135(1), 1295%

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2011): Prescrire Int 20(118), 173

Respiratory tract infection 

(2011): Gasperini C+, Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 16(4), 697 [REVIEW]

(2010): Horga A+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11(7), 1183

Sinusitis 7%

(package insert)

Upper respiratory tract infection 

(2020): Yang CC+, J Formos Med Assoc Jul, Online ahead of print12%

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

Adverse effects 

(2018): Ribeiro de Barros AH+, Clin Neuropharmacol Jun, Epub ahead of print5% (treatment discontinuation)

(2017): Fragoso YD, Acta Neurol Belg 117(4), 821 [REVIEW]

(2017): Galan Sanchez-Seco V+, Clin Neuropharmacol 40(1), 2919%

(2015): Gajofatto A+, Drug Healthc Patient Saf 7, 157 [REVIEW]

(2015): Russo M+, Mayo Clin Proc 90(10), 1424 (peripheral vascular effects)

(2014): Al-Hashel J+, CNS Drugs 28(9), 81725%

(2014): Baldi E+, Curr Med Res Opin 30(9), 18492% (serious)

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2014): Ziemssen T+, Mult Scler Relat Disord 3(6), 7514%

(2011): Cohen JA+, Ann Neurol 69(5), 759

(2011): Scott LJ, CNS Drugs 25(8), 673

(2010): Barten LJ+, Drug Des Devel Ther 4, 343

Breast cancer 

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

Cancer 

(2017): Guarnera C+, Drug Des Devel Ther 11, 2193 [REVIEW]

Death 

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2012): Lindsey JW+, Mult Scler 18(10), 1507

(2012): Winkelmann A+, Nervenarzt 83(2), 236

(2012): Yadav V+, Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep 12(5), 489

(2011): Scott LJ, CNS Drugs 25(8), 673 (infection)

(2010): Cohen JA+, N Engl J Med 362(5), 402

(2010): Pozzilli C+, Expert Opin Pharmacother 11(11), 1957

Fetotoxicity 

(2014): Karlsson G+, Neurology 82(8), 6748%

Infection 

(2017): Auricchio F+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 16(12), 1359 [REVIEW]

(2017): Fragoso YD, Acta Neurol Belg 117(4), 821 [REVIEW]

(2017): Guarnera C+, Drug Des Devel Ther 11, 2193 [REVIEW]

(2017): Manni A+, Brain Behav 7(10), Epub11%

(2015): Achtnichts L+, JAMA Neurol 72(10), 1203

(2015): Gajofatto A+, Drug Healthc Patient Saf 7, 157 [REVIEW]

(2015): Huang D, Neurology 85(11), 1001

(2014): Calabresi PA+, Lancet Neurol 13(6), 5453%

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]

(2014): Ward MD+, Expert Opin Drug Saf 13(7), 989 [REVIEW]

(2012): Cervera C, Rev Neurol 55(4), 227

(2011): Prescrire Int 20(118), 173

(2011): Gasperini C+, Expert Opin Emerg Drugs 16(4), 697 [REVIEW]

(2011): Hyland MH+, Neurol Clin Pract 1(1), 61

(2011): Scott LJ, CNS Drugs 25(8), 673 (fatal)Fatal

(2011): Singer B+, Int J Clin Pract 65(8), 887

(2010): Cohen JA+, N Engl J Med 362(5), 402 (fatal)Fatal

(2010): Comi G+, Mult Scler 16 (2), 197

Neoplasms 

(2014): Calabresi PA+, Lancet Neurol 13(6), 5454%

(2014): Rommer PS+, Clin Exp Immunol 175(3), 397 [REVIEW]



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Click on the DRUG REVIEW ARTICLE tab (above) to see a review of fingolimod in the Taylor & Francis journal Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. (Note that non-subscribers to the journal will only be able to see an abstract of the article.)

Adverse reactions attributed to entire drug class Covid-19 putative drug

Cardiovascular adverse effect 

(2020): Carpenter A+, Front Cardiovasc Med 7, 85 [REVIEW]

(2020): Giudicessi JR+, Mayo Clin Proc May, Online ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2020): Naksuk N+, Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care May, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2020): Sarayani A+, Res Social Adm Pharm Apr, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2020): Zhang D+, Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi (Chinese) 45(10), 2275-2286 [REVIEW]

Neuropsychiatric / neuropsychological adverse effect 

(2021): Borah P+, Front Mol Biosci 8, 627723

(2020): García CAC+, Gen Hosp Psychiatry Jun, Online ahead of print [REVIEW]

Gastrointestinal disorder / discomfort 

(2020): Sun J+, Clin Pharmacol Ther Apr, Epub ahead of print23%

Thrombocytopenia 

(2020): Nham E+, Infect Chemother Apr, Epub ahead of print

Adverse effects 

(2021): Bérard A+, PLoS One 16(5), e0251746 [REVIEW] (in pregnancy)

(2021): Cheng Q+, Aging (Albany NY) Sep, Online ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2021): Cruciani F+, Recenti Prog Med 112(3), 195-206 [REVIEW]

(2021): Ommati MM+, J Biochem Mol Toxicol May, Online ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2021): Qiu R+, Medicine (Baltimore) 100(16), e25532 [REVIEW]

(2021): Wu SS+, Chin Med J (Engl) Jul, Online ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2020): Favilli A+, J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med Jun, Online ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2020): Griffiths G+, Trials 21(1), 544

(2020): Patil VM+, Life Sci May, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2020): Rhodes NJ+, medRxiv Jun, Preprint

(2020): Sun J+, Clin Pharmacol Ther Apr, Epub ahead of print38%

(2020): Svensson M, Lakartidningen (Swedish) Apr, 117

(2020): Wen CY+, Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi (Chinese) May, Epub ahead of print

(2020): Zekarias A+, Drug Saf Sep, Online ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2020): Zhong H+, Pharmacol Res Apr, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

Adverse reactions attributed to entire drug class Immunosuppressant

Adverse effects 

(2019): Zhang Z+, BMC Nephrol 20(1), 333 [REVIEW]

Page last updated 09/14/2021

Drug Eruption Mobile Site

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Incidence info

  • <1%
  • 1-5%
  • 5-10%
  • 10-15%
  • 15-20%
  • 20-30%
  • >30%

Seriousness info

  • Hospitalization possible
  • Life threatening
  • Fatal

Warnings in other populations info

  • Breast feeding
  • Geriatric
  • Pediatric
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