Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor (G-CSF)

BreastfeedingPediatric
  • TRADE NAMES: Filgrastim; Granix (Sicor); Grasin; Leucogen; Leukine (Bayer, Berlex); Neulasta (Amgen); Neupogen (Amgen); Neupogen 30; Pegfilgrastim; Prokine; Zarxio (Novartis)
  • INDICATIONS: Bone marrow allograft and autograft
  • SYNONYM: filgrastim; sargramostim; pegfilgrastim
  • CLASS: Biologic, Colony stimulating factor, COVID-19 putative drug, Hematopoietic
  • HALF-LIFE: filgrastim: 3.5 hours; sargramostim: 2–3 hours; pegfilgrastim: 15–80 hours; tbo-filgrastim: 3–4 hours
CLINICALLY IMPORTANT, POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS INTERACTIONS WITH:

Fluorouracil

PREGNANCY CATEGORY: C

Under investigation for treating COVID-19

See adverse reactions attributed to class:

Biologic

COVID-19 putative drug

rGM-CSF is granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor; rG-CSF is granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.

Abscess 

(2000): Hilbe W+, Bone Marrow Transplant 26(7), 811

Acneiform eruption 

(1996): Lee PK+, J Am Acad Dermatol 34, 855

Acral erythema 

(1995): Komamura H+, J Dermatol 22(2), 116

Acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis (Sweet's syndrome) 

(2014): Machan M+, Int J Dermatol 53(10), 1275

(2013): Llamas-Velasco M+, J Cutan Pathol 40(1), 46

(2010): Kim MJ+, Eur J Pediatr 169 (12), 1439

(2008): Bidyasar S+, J Clin Oncol 26 (26), 4355

(2007): Cohen PR, Orphanet J Rare Dis 2, 34 [REVIEW]

(2007): Thompson DF+, Ann Pharmacother 41(5), 802 [REVIEW]

(2006): Hara I+, Int J Urol 13(4), 481

(2006): Oiso N+, Br J Haematol 135(2), 148

(2006): Thompson MA+, Am J Hematol 81(9), 703

(2006): White JM+, Clin Exp Dermatol 31(2), 206 (3 cases)

(2005): Draper BK+, J Am Acad Dermatol 52(5), 901

(2004): Kumar G+, Am J Hematol 76(3), 283

(2001): Magro CM+, J Cutan Pathol 28(2), 90

(2001): Matsumura T+, Br J Haematol 113(1), 1

(2001): Prendiville J+, Pediatr Dermatol 18(5), 417 (2 cases)

(2000): Malone JC+, Arch Dermatol, 345 (passim)

(1999): Arbetter KR+, Am J Hematol 61, 126

(1999): Veres K+, Orv Hetil (Hungarian) 140, 1059

(1998): Chao SC+, J Formos Med Assoc 96, 276

(1998): Hasegawa M+, Eur J Dermatol 8, 503 (2 patients)

(1998): Merkel PA, Curr Opin Rheumatol 10, 45 [REVIEW]

(1996): Garty BZ+, Pediatrics 97, 401

(1996): Jain KK, Cutis 57, 107 [REVIEW]

(1996): Petit T+, Lancet 347, 690

(1996): Prevost-Blank PL+, J Am Acad Dermatol 35, 995

(1996): Richard MA+, J Am Acad Dermatol 35, 629

(1996): Shimizu T+, J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 18, 282

(1995): Shiga Y+, Rinsho Ketsueki (Japanese) 36, 353

(1995): Suzuki Y+, Br J Dermatol 133, 483

(1994): Fukutoku M+, Br J Haematol 86, 645

(1994): Johnson ML+, Arch Dermatol 130, 77 [REVIEW]

(1994): Reuss-Borst MA+, Leuk Lymphoma 15, 261 [REVIEW]

(1994): van Kamp H+, Br J Haematol 86, 415

(1993): Paydas S+, Br J Haematol 85, 191

(1992): Karp DL, Ann Intern Med 117, 875

(1992): Park JW+, Ann Intern Med 116, 996

(1991): Ross HJ+, Cancer 68, 441

(1990): Morioka N+, J Am Acad Dermatol 23, 247

(1989): Groopman JE+, N Engl J Med 321, 1449 [REVIEW]

(1989): Kluin-Nelemans JC+, Br J Haematol 73, 419

Anaphylactoid reactions/Anaphylaxis <1%

(2000): Khoury H+, Bone Marrow Transplant 25, 1197

(1999): Dupre D+, Ann Dermatol Venereol (French) 126, 161

(1999): Keung YK+, Bone Marrow Transplant 23, 200

(1991): Liberati AM+, Leukemia 5 Suppl 1, 119

Diaphoresis 

(2000): Khoury H+, Bone Marrow Transplant 25, 1197

Edema 

(2000): Milkovich G+, Pharmacotherapy 20(12), 1432

Erythema 

(2003): Lenczowski JM+, J Am Acad Dermatol 49(1), 105

(2001): Prendiville J+, Pediatr Dermatol 18(5), 417

(2001): Tomita Y+, Acta Derm Venereol 81(6), 436

(1990): Farmer KL+, Arch Dermatol 126, 1243

(1989): Groopman JE+, N Engl J Med 321, 1449

Erythema nodosum 

(2005): George S+, Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 11(10), 816

(1994): Nomiyama J+, Am J Hematol 47, 333

Exanthems 5–63%

(1996): Glass LF+, J Am Acad Dermatol 34, 455

(1995): McMullin MF+, Clin Rheumatol 14, 204

(1995): Scott GA, Am J Dermatopathol 17, 107 [REVIEW]

(1994): Sasaki O+, Intern Med 33, 641

(1993): Samlaska CP+, Arch Dermatol 129, 645

(1993): Yamashita N+, J Dermatol 20, 473

(1991): Cohen PR+, J Am Acad Dermatol 25, 734

(1991): Horn TD+, Arch Dermatol 127, 49 (3 cases)

(1990): Farmer KL+, Arch Dermatol 126, 1243

(1990): Lazarus H+, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 9, 15

(1988): Brandt SJ+, N Engl J Med 318, 86963%

Exfoliative dermatitis 10%

(1988): Brandt SJ+, N Engl J Med 318, 86910%

Flushing >10%

(2000): Khoury H+, Bone Marrow Transplant 25, 1197

Folliculitis 

(1992): Ostlere LS+, Br J Dermatol 127, 193

Graft-versus-host reaction 

(2005): Mohty M+, Leukemia 19(4), 500

(2002): Law L+, Int J Hematol 76(4), 360 [REVIEW]

(2001): Deeg HJ, Int J Hematol 74(1), 26 [REVIEW]

(2001): Ji S+, Chin Med J (Engl) 114(2), 191

Herpes zoster 

(2015): Chavez-Tapia NC+, Ann Hepatol 14(5), 631 [REVIEW]

Hypersensitivity 

(2015): Dadla A+, J Oncol Pharm Pract 21(6), 474

Lupus erythematosus 

(2006): Vasiliu IM+, J Rheumatol 33(9), 1878

Lymphoproliferative disease 

(1994): De la Rubia J+, Bone Marrow Transplantation 14, 475

(1994): Kawach Y+, Leukemia and Lymphoma 13, 509

Malignant lymphoma 

(2006): Kanbayashi Y+, Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 33(1), 73

Neutrophilic dermatosis  

(2019): Ichiki T+, Acta Derm Venereol 99(7), 685 (1 case)

Panniculitis 

(necrotizing)

(2000): Dereure O+, Br J Dermatol 142, 834

Peripheral edema <10%

(package insert)

Pruritus <5%

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (9 cases) (with ipilimumab)

(1990): Farmer KL+, Arch Dermatol 126, 1243

(1990): Steward WP+, Int J Cell Cloning 8, 335

(1989): Steward WP+, Br J Cancer 59, 142

Psoriasis 

(2004): Mossner R+, Exp Dermatol 13(6), 340

(2001): Yonei T+, Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi 39(6), 438

(1998): Cho SG+, J Korean Med Sci 13, 685

(1997): Feliu J+, J Natl Cancer Inst 89(17), 1315

(1996): Kavanaugh A, Am J Med 101, 567

Pyoderma gangrenosum 

(2006): Miall FM+, Br J Haematol 132(1), 115

(2006): White LE+, Skinmed 5(2), 96

(1998): Merkel PA, Curr Opin Rheumatol 10, 45 [REVIEW]

(1991): Ross HJ+, Cancer 68, 441

Rash <40%

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (14 cases) (with ipilimumab)

(2015): Chavez-Tapia NC+, Ann Hepatol 14(5), 631 [REVIEW]

(2015): Dadla A+, J Oncol Pharm Pract 21(6), 474

(2003): Brumit MC+, Transfusion 43(10), 1343

(2003): Prosper F+, Leukemia 17(2), 437

(1996): Johnson RJ+, Br J Haematol 93(4), 86340%

(1993): Dale DC+, Blood 81(10), 2496

Scleroderma 

(2010): Hill GR+, Blood 116(5), 819

Toxicity 

(2014): Choueiri TK+, J Clin Oncol 32(18), 188910% (grade 3+) (with cisplatin, doxorubicin, methotrexate and vinblastine)

Urticaria 

(2017): Gendelman HE+, NPJ Parkinsons Dis 3, 10

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (2 cases) (with ipilimumab)

(2009): Beaupain B+, Pediatr Blood Cancer 53(6), 1068 (grade 3)

Vasculitis 

(1999): Andavolu MV+, Ann Hematol 78, 79

(1998): Merkel PA, Curr Opin Rheumatol 10, 45 [REVIEW]

(1995): Couderc LJ+, Respir Med 89, 237

(1995): Farhey YD+, J Rheumatol 22, 1179

(1995): Vidarsson B+, Am J Med 98, 589

(1994): Jain KK, J Am Acad Dermatol 31, 213 [REVIEW]

(1994): Johnson ML+, Arch Dermatol 130, 77 [REVIEW]

(1990): Farmer KL+, Arch Dermatol 126, 1243

(1989): Kluin-Nelemans JC+, Br J Haematol 73, 419

Alopecia >10%

(1990): Lazarus H+, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 9, 15

Mucositis 40%

(1999): Crawford J+, Cytokines Cell Mol Ther 5, 187

(1996): Johnson RJ+, Br J Haematol 93(4), 86340%

Oral lesions 

(1990): Lazarus H+, Proc Am Soc Clin Oncol 9, 15

Stomatitis >10%

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

(2014): Rizzieri DA+, Br J Haematol 165(1), 10269% (with rituximab and high-intensity chemotherapy)

Angina 

(2006): Huttmann A+, Basic Res Cardiol 101(1), 78

Arrhythmias 

(2006): Huttmann A+, Basic Res Cardiol 101(1), 78

Atrial fibrillation 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (1 case) (with ipilimumab)

Capillary leak syndrome 

(2003): Rechner I+, Hematol J 4(1), 54

(1998): Heitger A+, Med Pediatr Oncol 31(2), 126

(1994): Oeda E+, Intern Med 33(2), 115

(1991): Arning M+, Ann Hematol 62(2-3), 83

(1991): Liberati AM+, Leukemia 5 Suppl 1, 119

(1990): Emminger W+, Blut 61(4), 219

Pericarditis 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (1 case) (with ipilimumab)

Anorexia 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (8 cases) (with ipilimumab)

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Cerebral hemorrhage 

(1991): Liberati AM+, Leukemia 5 Suppl 1, 119

Depression 

(1996): Cousins JP+, Cancer Lett 110(1), 163 (with paclitaxel)

Euphoria 

(2017): Myles N+, Aust N Z J Psychiatry 51(10), 980 [REVIEW]

Fever (pyrexia) 5–50%

(2018): Tamura K+, J Infect Chemother Feb, Epub ahead of print1%

(2017): Huang HQ+, Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi (Chinese) 38(10), 825<1%

(2017): Talwar V+, South Asian J Cancer 6(1), 202% (serious)

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (6 cases) (with ipilimumab)

(2015): Chavez-Tapia NC+, Ann Hepatol 14(5), 631 [REVIEW]

(2003): Aoyama Y+, Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 30(6), 829

(2003): van der Kolk LE+, Leukemia 17(8), 165829%

(2002): Cesaro S+, Haematologica 87(8), 35 [REVIEW]>5%

(2002): Takatsuka H+, Chest 121(5), 1716

(2001): Mayer J+, Vnitr Lek 47, 15

(2001): Weaver CH+, Bone Marrow Transplant 27, S23 (G-CSF 18% / GM-CSF 52%)

(2000): Hilbe W+, Bone Marrow Transplant 26(7), 811

(2000): Milkovich G+, Pharmacotherapy 20(12), 1432 (sargramostim 7% filgrastim 1%)

(1999): Alvarado Ibarra+, Rev Invest Clin 51(2), 77

(1999): Anderlini P+, Transfusion 39(6), 55534%

(1997): Hanauske AR+, Oncology 54(5), 363

(1996): Anderlini P+, Transfusion 36(7), 59020%

(1996): Johnson RJ+, Br J Haematol 93(4), 86350%

(1996): Rackoff WR+, Blood 88(5), 1588

(1996): Stroncek DF+, Transfusion 36(7), 60114%

Headache 39–80%

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (2 cases) (with ipilimumab)

(2015): Chavez-Tapia NC+, Ann Hepatol 14(5), 631 [REVIEW]

(2007): Andre N+, Anticancer Drugs 18(3), 277

(2006): Hatzimichael E+, Clin Lab Haematol 28(6), 416

(2003): Aoyama Y+, Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 30(6), 829

(2002): Beelen DW+, Ann Hematol 81(12), 70180%

(2002): Cesaro S+, Haematologica 87(8), 35 [REVIEW]54%

(2002): Kroger N+, Bone Marrow Transplant 29(9), 727

(1999): Anderlini P+, Transfusion 39(6), 55554%

(1999): Martinez C+, Bone Marrow Transplant 24(12), 1273

(1996): Anderlini P+, Transfusion 36(7), 59070%

(1996): Stroncek DF+, Transfusion 36(7), 60139%

(1993): Dale DC+, Blood 81(10), 2496

Leukoencephalopathy 

(2007): Okeda R+, Neuropathology 27(4), 364 (with IVIG)

Neurotoxicity 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

(2014): Rizzieri DA+, Br J Haematol 165(1), 10225% (with rituximab and high-intensity chemotherapy)

Pain 

(2017): Talwar V+, South Asian J Cancer 6(1), 2011%

(2014): Mullen EC, Oncol Nurs Forum 41(2), 212

Vertigo (dizziness) >5%

(2002): Cesaro S+, Haematologica 87(8), 35 [REVIEW]>5%

Alanine aminotransferase (ALT) increased 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (3 cases) (with ipilimumab)

Dehydration  

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Hyperglycemia 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Hyperthyroidism 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (2 cases) (with ipilimumab)

Hypocalcemia 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Hypokalemia 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Hypophosphatemia 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Weight loss 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (2 cases) (with ipilimumab)

Abdominal pain 

(2002): Otaibi AA+, J Pediatr Surg 37(5), 770

Colitis 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (4 cases) (with ipilimumab)

(1991): Liberati AM+, Leukemia 5 Suppl 1, 119

Constipation 

(2017): Talwar V+, South Asian J Cancer 6(1), 208%

Diarrhea 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (8 cases) (with ipilimumab)

Gastrointestinal perforation 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (with ipilimumab)

Hepatotoxicity 

(1991): Liberati AM+, Leukemia 5 Suppl 1, 119

Liver injury 

(2019): Sharma D+, ACG Case Rep J 6(6), e00098 (1 case)

Nausea 

(2017): Talwar V+, South Asian J Cancer 6(1), 208%

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (6 cases) (with ipilimumab)

(2015): Chavez-Tapia NC+, Ann Hepatol 14(5), 631 [REVIEW]

(2013): Santjohanser C+, Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 61(2), 159

(2006): Hatzimichael E+, Clin Lab Haematol 28(6), 416

Vomiting  

(2017): Talwar V+, South Asian J Cancer 6(1), 2012%

Anemia 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

(2013): Kasi PM+, Case Rep Hematol Dec, Epub [REVIEW]

(2009): Beaupain B+, Pediatr Blood Cancer 53(6), 1068 (1 case)

Febrile neutropenia 

(2017): Talwar V+, South Asian J Cancer 6(1), 201% (grade 3 or 4)

(2014): Cheng C+, Anticancer Drugs 25(8), 9645–9% (with cyclophosphamide, doxrubicin, prednisone and vincristine)

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

(2014): Montoro J+, Transfus Apher Sci 50(3), 411 (with R-ESHAP chemotherapy (rituximab, etoposide, methyprednisolone, cytarabine and cisplatin))

(2014): Volovat C+, Clin Breast Cancer 14(2), 101

(2009): Mattioli R+, Clin Transl Oncol 11(12), 8423%

Granulocytopenia 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Leukocytosis (elevated white blood cell (WBC) count) 

(2019): Chavda R+, Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) 32(2), 261 (1 case) (with adriamycin and cyclophosphamide)

(2019): Takuwa H+, Mol Clin Oncol 11(4), 371 (1 case) (with chemotherapy)

(2017): Gendelman HE+, NPJ Parkinsons Dis 3, 10

(2015): Chan K+, BMJ Case Rep Jul, Epub

(2013): Santjohanser C+, Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 61(2), 159 (mild)

Leukopenia (leukocytopenia) 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Myelosuppression 

(2014): Montoro J+, Transfus Apher Sci 50(3), 411 (with R-ESHAP chemotherapy (rituximab, etoposide, methyprednisolone, cytarabine and cisplatin))

Neutropenia 

(2018): Tamura K+, J Infect Chemother Feb, Epub ahead of print

(2017): Talwar V+, South Asian J Cancer 6(1), 202% (grade 3 or 4)

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

(2012): Yang BB+, Chemotherapy 58(5), 387

Thrombocythemia (thrombocytosis) 

(2012): Dihingia S+, Gen Hosp Psychiatry 34(3), 320

Thrombocytopenia 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

(2009): Beaupain B+, Pediatr Blood Cancer 53(6), 1068 (grade 3 / 1 case)

Infusion-related reactions 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (3 cases) (with ipilimumab)

Injection-site erythema 

(1995): Scott GA, Am J Dermatopathol 17, 107 [REVIEW]

Injection-site nodules 

(1990): Farmer KL+, Arch Dermatol 126, 1243

Injection-site pain 1–10%

(package insert)

Injection-site pruritus 

(2013): Santjohanser C+, Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 61(2), 159

(1990): Farmer KL+, Arch Dermatol 126, 1243

Injection-site reaction >5%

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (15 cases) (with ipilimumab)

(2006): Prescrire Int 15(85), 189

(2002): Cesaro S+, Haematologica 87(8), 35 [REVIEW]>5%

(2000): Milkovich G+, Pharmacotherapy 20(12), 1432

(1999): Facon T+, Blood 94(4), 1218

(1997): Moskowitz CH+, Blood 89(9), 3136

Injection-site urticaria 

(1995): Scott GA, Am J Dermatopathol 17, 107 [REVIEW]

Arthralgia 

(2017): Talwar V+, South Asian J Cancer 6(1), 201%

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (2 cases) (with ipilimumab)

(2013): Bondarenko I+, BMC Cancer 13, 3862% (with docetaxel and doxorubicin)

(2002): Cesaro S+, Haematologica 87(8), 35 [REVIEW]

(2002): Tsukadaira A+, Ann Rheum Dis 61(9), 849

Asthenia (fatigue) 

(2019): Takuwa H+, Mol Clin Oncol 11(4), 371 (1 case) (with chemotherapy)

(2017): Huang HQ+, Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi (Chinese) 38(10), 825<1%

(2017): Talwar V+, South Asian J Cancer 6(1), 202%

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (12 cases) (with ipilimumab)

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

(2006): Hatzimichael E+, Clin Lab Haematol 28(6), 416

(2002): Cesaro S+, Haematologica 87(8), 35 [REVIEW]31%

(2002): Kroger N+, Bone Marrow Transplant 29(9), 727

(2000): Milkovich G+, Pharmacotherapy 20(12), 1432

(1999): Martinez C+, Bone Marrow Transplant 24(12), 1273

Back pain 

(2018): Tamura K+, J Infect Chemother Feb, Epub ahead of print3%

(2015): Tesch H+, Oncol Res Treat 38(4), 1464%

Bone or joint pain 13–84%

(2018): Dale DC+, Support Care Cancer 26(1), 7 [REVIEW]

(2018): Harbeck N+, Oncologist Jan, Epub ahead of print7%

(2018): Tamura K+, J Infect Chemother Feb, Epub ahead of print1%

(2017): Gendelman HE+, NPJ Parkinsons Dis 3, 10

(2017): Huang HQ+, Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi (Chinese) 38(10), 8254%

(2017): Talwar V+, South Asian J Cancer 6(1), 20<1%

(2015): Romeo C+, J Oncol Pharm Pract 21(4), 301

(2015): Tesch H+, Oncol Res Treat 38(4), 1464%

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

(2014): Lambertini M+, Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 89(1), 11225–38%

(2013): Bondarenko I+, BMC Cancer 13, 38617% (with docetaxel and doxorubicin)

(2013): Rossi L+, Ther Clin Risk Manag 9, 45738–58%

(2013): Santjohanser C+, Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz) 61(2), 159 (mild)

(2012): Salehi T+, Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 11(1), 51

(2010): Pezzoli G+, Clin Neurol Neurosurg 112 (1), 65

(2009): Beaupain B+, Pediatr Blood Cancer 53(6), 1068 (9 cases)

(2007): Andre N+, Anticancer Drugs 18(3), 277

(2006): Prescrire Int 15(85), 189

(2006): Hatzimichael E+, Clin Lab Haematol 28(6), 416

(2006): Hosing C+, Br J Haematol 133(5), 533

(2006): Younes A+, Eur J Cancer 42(17), 2976<1% (grade 3 or 4) (with bleomycin, dacarbazine, doxorubicin and vinblastine)

(2005): Korzenik JR+, Aliment Pharmacol Ther 21(4), 391

(2003): Aoyama Y+, Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 30(6), 829

(2003): Kubista E+, Clin Breast Cancer 3(6), 391

(2003): Kubista E+, Clin Breast Cancer 3(6), 391

(2002): Beelen DW+, Ann Hematol 81(12), 701

(2002): Cesaro S+, Haematologica 87(8), 35 [REVIEW]84%

(2002): Curran MP+, Drugs 62(8), 1207

(2002): Kroger N+, Bone Marrow Transplant 29(9), 727

(2002): Sevilla J+, Bone Marrow Transplant 30(7), 417

(2002): Tanaka J+, Int J Hematol 75(5), 489

(2001): Mayer J+, Vnitr Lek 47, 1564%

(2000): Akizuki S+, Bone Marrow Transplant 26(9), 939

(2000): Milkovich G+, Pharmacotherapy 20(12), 1432

(1999): Anderlini P+, Transfusion 39(6), 555

(1999): Martinez C+, Bone Marrow Transplant 24(12), 1273

(1997): Majolino I+, Haematologica 82(1), 47

(1997): Yano T+, Int J Hematol 66(2), 169

(1996): Anderlini P+, Transfusion 36(7), 59082%

(1996): Rozman C+, Leuk Lymphoma 20(5), 471

(1996): Sica S+, J Hematother 5(4), 391

(1996): Stroncek DF+, Transfusion 36(7), 60183%

(1995): Frampton JE+, Drugs 49(5), 767 [REVIEW]13%

(1993): Dale DC+, Blood 81(10), 2496

Myalgia/Myositis/Myopathy/Myotoxicity >10%

(2017): Chen J+, Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) 63(12), 1061

(2013): Bondarenko I+, BMC Cancer 13, 3866% (with docetaxel and doxorubicin)

(2006): Hosing C+, Br J Haematol 133(5), 533

(2002): Sevilla J+, Bone Marrow Transplant 30(7), 417

Pain in extremities 

(2017): Talwar V+, South Asian J Cancer 6(1), 201%

Ocular pain 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (1 case) (with ipilimumab)

Retinitis 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (1 case) (with ipilimumab)

Vision blurred 

(2016): Kwek SS+, Oncoimmunology 5(4), Epub (1 case) (with ipilimumab)

Ear infection 

(2009): Beaupain B+, Pediatr Blood Cancer 53(6), 1068 (recurrent ENT infections)

Nephrotoxicity 

(2014): Rizzieri DA+, Br J Haematol 165(1), 10210% (with rituximab and high-intensity chemotherapy)

Acute respiratory distress syndrome 

(2003): Le Guillou F+, Rev Mal Respir (French) 20(2 Pt 1), 273 (with bleomycin, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, methotrexate and vindesin)

Dyspnea 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Flu-like syndrome 

(2006): Prescrire Int 15(85), 189

(2001): Mayer J+, Vnitr Lek 47, 15

Hypoxia 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Pharyngitis 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Pneumonia 

(2005): Macartney C+, Leuk Lymphoma 46(10), 1523

Pneumonitis 

(2016): Vilaplana BE+, Am J Ther 23(6), e1946

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Pulmonary toxicity 

(2014): Rizzieri DA+, Br J Haematol 165(1), 10218% (with rituximab and high-intensity chemotherapy)

Respiratory distress 

(2009): Beaupain B+, Pediatr Blood Cancer 53(6), 1068 (fatal / 1 case)Fatal

(2009): Donadieu J+, Haematologica 94(8), 1175 (fatal)Fatal

Upper respiratory tract infection 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

Adverse effects 19%

(2020): Rastogi S+, Toxicol Appl Pharmacol Mar, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2017): Talwar V+, South Asian J Cancer 6(1), 2046%

(2014): Akyol G+, Transfus Apher Sci 50(1), 53 (splenic rupture)

(2014): Volovat C+, Clin Breast Cancer 14(2), 10119–20%

(2013): Bondarenko I+, BMC Cancer 13, 38626% (with docetaxel and doxorubicin)

(2006): Hatzimichael E+, Clin Lab Haematol 28(6), 416 (splenic hematoma)

(2002): De la Rubia J+, J Hematother Stem Cell Res 11(4), 705

(2002): Heuft HG+, Transfusion 42(7), 928

(2001): Kashiwagi H+, Gan To Kagaku Ryoho 28(8), 1105

(1998): Caballero MD+, Haematologica 83(6), 51419%

(1997): Hanauske AR+, Oncology 54(5), 363

(1997): Yano T+, Int J Hematol 66(2), 169

Allergic reactions 19%

(2003): van der Kolk LE+, Leukemia 17(8), 165819%

Death 

(2014): Rizzieri DA+, Br J Haematol 165(1), 102 (5 cases) (with rituximab and high-intensity chemotherapy)

(2009): Beaupain B+, Pediatr Blood Cancer 53(6), 1068 (1 case)

(2009): Donadieu J+, Haematologica 94(8), 1175 (1 case)

(2003): O'Malley DP+, Am J Hematol 73(4), 294

(2002): Kikuchi M+, Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi 39(4), 433

(2001): Adler BK+, Blood 97(10), 3313

Hiccups 

(2009): Forghieri F+, Acta Oncol 48(6), 932 (with idarubicin fludarabine and cytarabine)

Infection 

(2014): Gralow JR+, Breast Cancer Res Treat 143(2), 351 (with docetaxel and vinorelbine)

(2009): Beaupain B+, Pediatr Blood Cancer 53(6), 1068 (2 cases)

(2006): Prescrire Int 15(85), 189

Side effects 

(1999): Will R+, Urologe A 38(3), 258 (G-CSF 38.5% / GM-CSF 69.3%)



Adverse reactions attributed to entire drug class Biologic

Psoriasis 

(2020): Afach S+, Br J Dermatol May, Online ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2020): Montolio Chiva L+, Reumatol Clin Mar, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

Vasculitis 

(2016): Gutierrez-Gonzalez LA, Curr Rheumatol Rep 18(7), 39 [REVIEW]

Infusion-related reactions 

(2016): Al-Mayouf SM+, Int J Rheum Dis 19(6), 60034%Pediatric

Uveitis 

(2020): Klein A+, ACR Open Rheumatol 2(1), 376%

Adverse effects 

(2016): Al-Mayouf SM+, Int J Rheum Dis 19(6), 60035%Pediatric

Infection 

(2020): Klein A+, ACR Open Rheumatol 2(1), 373%

Adverse reactions attributed to entire drug class COVID-19 putative drug

Cutaneous adverse reaction  

(2020): Tursen U+, Dermatol Ther May, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

Cardiovascular adverse effect 

(2020): Naksuk N+, Eur Heart J Acute Cardiovasc Care May, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2020): Sarayani A+, Res Social Adm Pharm Apr, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

Gastrointestinal disorder 

(2020): Sun J+, Clin Pharmacol Ther Apr, Epub ahead of print23%

Hepatic disorder 

(2020): Sun J+, Clin Pharmacol Ther Apr, Epub ahead of print14%

Thrombocytopenia 

(2020): Nham E+, Infect Chemother Apr, Epub ahead of print

Adverse effects 

(2020): Patil VM+, Life Sci May, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

(2020): Sun J+, Clin Pharmacol Ther Apr, Epub ahead of print38%

(2020): Svensson M, Lakartidningen (Swedish) Apr, 117

(2020): Wen CY+, Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi (Chinese) May, Epub ahead of print

(2020): Zhong H+, Pharmacol Res Apr, Epub ahead of print [REVIEW]

Page last updated 05/25/2020

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Incidence info

  • <1%
  • 1-5%
  • 5-10%
  • 10-15%
  • 15-20%
  • 20-30%
  • >30%

Seriousness info

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  • Life threatening
  • Fatal

Warnings in other populations info

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